With changes in demographic structure and socio-economic development, gender norms among Chinese adolescents have quietly shifted, and corresponding behavioral norms have also influenced the trends in at-risk health behaviors. We conducted a nation-wide survey between 2022 and 2023 across China, focusing on alcohol, tobacco, and electronic cigarette use among Generation Z youth (born between 1995 and 2010). The results show that the rates of ever and current use of electronic cigarettes were 4.6% and 1.8%, respectively. The rates of ever and current tobacco use were 3.5% and 5.1%, respectively. The rates of ever and current alcohol use were 6.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a severe problem drinking rate of 6.3%. Males exhibited significantly higher susceptibility to electronic cigarettes and tobacco compared to females, but the susceptibility to alcohol was not significantly higher. Males also scored significantly higher on traditional gender norms than females. Multiple regression analysis found that traditional gender norms strengthened the positive attitudes of both males and females towards addictive substances, with a stronger effect on females. Traditional gender norms were positively correlated with cigarette use in both genders. The inhibitory effect of traditional gender norms on addictive substances was only evident in the future susceptibility to alcohol among females.